Forty-six physical education Volunteers served in Indonesia from 1963–65, working with Indonesians in advancing their sports programs. The program was brought to a close in 1965 as a result of political upheaval and concerns for the safety and security of the Volunteers.
In October 2006, the government of Indonesia invited the Peace Corps to send an assessment team to the country for the purpose of re-establishing a program. Assessments were completed in 2007, and the respective governments signed a new agreement regarding the establishment of a Peace Corps program in December 2009, with an initial project in English Teaching and Teacher Training.
Public schools in Indonesia are under the direction of either the Ministry of Education and Culture or the Ministry of Religious Affairs. After visiting many interested schools in spring 2010, Peace Corps/Indonesia, with support from the government of Indonesia, determined that Volunteer placement in both types of schools would be appropriate.