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The government of Mozambique first approached the American government about the Peace Corps in the early 1990s, at a time when their post-independence civil conflict was coming to an end. In October 1998, the first Volunteers arrived to teach English in district secondary schools. The second group of Volunteers included a cohort of science teachers. The next group included not only secondary school English and science teachers, but also English teacher trainers, who began teaching in February 2002. In 2004, Peace Corps Volunteers began working in a new sector, community health. As community health promoters, Health Volunteers began working with a variety of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), including international, national, community, and faith-based organizations on projects and programs in various areas such as HIV/AIDS education, care and treatment, nutrition, food security, and prevention of other diseases, such as cholera and malaria.

Currently 115 Volunteers serve in Mozambique (72 Health Volunteers and 43 Education Volunteers), many of whom serve as resources to incoming Volunteers. As a Volunteer, you may be placed in a community with another Volunteer, replace a Volunteer who has just finished his or her service, or even be the first Volunteer assigned to a particular school, NGO, or community. Volunteers become an integral part of sustaining and expanding the Peace Corps program in Mozambique and benefit greatly from the knowledge and experience of the Peace Corps/Mozambique staff. The staff consists of four Americans (a country director, a deputy country director, a training director, and director of management and operations), a medical officer, and locally hired Mozambican or non-Mozambican professional and support staff.