Global Issues: Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment
Globally, women have fewer opportunities for economic participation than men, less access to basic and higher education, greater health and safety risks, and less political representation.2 Guaranteeing the rights of women and giving them opportunities to reach their full potential is critical not only for attaining gender equality, but also for meeting a wide range of international development goals. Empowered women and girls contribute to the health and productivity of their families, communities, and countries, creating a ripple effect that benefits everyone.
The word gender describes the socially-constructed roles and responsibilities that societies consider appropriate for men and women.17 Gender equality means that men and women have equal power and equal opportunities for financial independence, education, and personal development 3 . Women's empowerment is a critical aspect of achieving gender equality. It includes increasing a woman's sense of self-worth, her decision-making power, her access to opportunities and resources, her power and control over her own life inside and outside the home, and her ability to effect change.4 Yet gender issues are not focused on women alone, but on the relationship between men and women in society.5 The actions and attitudes of men and boys play an essential role in achieving gender equality.6
Education is a key area of focus. Although the world is making progress in achieving gender parity in education, girls still make up a higher percentage of out-of-school children than boys.7 Approximately one quarter of girls in the developing world do not attend school.8 Typically, families with limited means who cannot afford costs such as school fees, uniforms, and supplies for all of their children will prioritize education for their sons.7 Families may also rely on girls' labor for household chores, carrying water, and childcare, leaving limited time for schooling. But prioritizing girls' education provides perhaps the single highest return on investment in the developing world.8 An educated girl is more likely to postpone marriage, raise a smaller family, have healthier children, and send her own children to school. She has more opportunities to earn an income and to participate in political processes, and she is less likely to become infected with HIV.
Women's health and safety is another important area. HIV/AIDS is becoming an increasingly impactful issue for women.9 This can be related to women having fewer opportunities for health education, unequal power in sexual partnership, or as a result of gender-based violence . Maternal health is also an issue of specific concern. In many countries, women have limited access to prenatal and infant care, and are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and childbirth. This is a critical concern in countries where girls marry and have children before they are ready; often well before the age of 18.10 Quality maternal health care can provide an important entry point for information and services that empower mothers as informed decision-makers concerning their own health and the health of their children.
A final area of focus in attaining gender equality is women's economic and political empowerment. Though women comprise more than 50% of the world's population, they only own 1% of the world's wealth.11 Throughout the world, women and girls perform long hours of unpaid domestic work. In some places, women still lack rights to own land or to inherit property, obtain access to credit, earn income, or to move up in their workplace, free from job discrimination.11 At all levels, including at home and in the public arena, women are widely underrepresented as decision-makers. In legislatures around the world, women are outnumbered 4 to 1, yet women's political participation is crucial for achieving gender equality and genuine democracy.12
The World Economic Forum recently ranked the United States as 19th in the world on its gender gap index.15 With women comprising less than one fifth of elected members of Congress,13 the report identifies political empowerment as the greatest gender equity issue for the United States. The U.S. ranked higher in economic empowerment, but women's earning power remains approximately 20% lower than men's.14 Women in the United States have a very high ranking of educational attainment, though, with high levels of literacy and enrollment in primary, secondary, and university education. At present, there are more U.S. women attending college than men.15
Globally, no country has fully attained gender equality.15 Scandinavian countries like Iceland, Norway, Finland, and Sweden lead the world in their progress toward closing the gender gap.15 In these countries, there is relatively equitable distribution of available income, resources, and opportunities for men and women. The greatest gender gaps are identified primarily in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. However, a number of countries in these regions, including Lesotho, South Africa, and Sri Lanka outrank the United States in gender equality.15
Around the world, Peace Corps Volunteers are working with communities to address gender equality and empower women and girls. In 1974, Congress signed the Percy Amendment requiring Peace Corps Volunteers to actively integrate women into the economic, political, and social development of their countries.16 Many Peace Corps Volunteers implement the Camp GLOW program, or Girls Leading Our World, to help girls develop self-esteem and leadership skills. Recognizing that men and boys must be equal partners in achieving gender equality, Volunteers also teach leadership and life skills to boys through Teaching Our Boys Excellence (TOBE) camps. Peace Corps Volunteers promote gender equality and women's empowerment through health education, business development, and by raising awareness of women's rights and contributions to their communities. Learn more about how Peace Corps Volunteers are working with communities by visiting the Paul D. Coverdell World Wise Schools program's Global Issues page.
Gender : Socially-constructed roles and responsibilities that societies consider appropriate for men and women
Gender-based violence : Violence against women based on their perceived subordinate status (e.g., physical abuse, sexual assault, psychological abuse, trafficking)
Gender equality : Equal power and opportunities for men and women
Gender gap : Discrepancy between men and women in the areas of health, education, political empowerment, and economic empowerment
Gender parity : Relative access to resources for men and women, often used for education
Maternal health : The health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and during the postpartum period
Percy Amendment : 1974 congressional amendment to the Peace Corps Act requiring Peace Corps Volunteers to integrate women into the economic, political, and social development of their countries
Women's empowerment : The fostering of a woman's sense of self-worth, her decision-making power, her access to opportunities and resources, her power and control over her own life inside and outside the home, and her ability to affect change